Impact of the crisis on EU cities according to:

Have cities been impacted by the crisis according to typology?

This chart positions metropolitan regions according to the sum of the annual growth rates of Employment and GVA for the 2008 to 2012 period. Metropolitan regions in the upper right hand quadrant have seen high GVA and Employment growth rates over the recession period. Metropolitan regions are coloured according to the typology they have been assigned in the 2010 State of European Cities Report.
  • Just over half of the Leading European Capitals and Metropolises have had positive GVA and Employment growth rates since 2008.
  • Regional Innovation Centres seem to have enjoyed high Employment growth rates during the recession period.
  • There is no clear clustering of any other of these typologies within a particular quadrant of the chart.
A1
Leading European Capitals and Metropolises
A2
National Capitals and Metropolises
B1
Regional Service Centres
B2
Regional Innovation Centres
B3
Regional Centres with Growing Population
C1
Smaller Administrative Centres
C2
Smaller Centres with Growing Population
D1
Cities in the Process of Structural Adaption
D2
Less developed towns and cities
NN
Other cities
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To what extent have cities of different population sizes been affected by the crisis?

This chart positions metropolitan regions according to the sum of the annual growth rates of Employment and GVA for the 2008 to 2012 period. Metropolitan regions in the upper right hand quadrant have seen high GVA and Employment growth rates over the recession period. Metropolitan regions are coloured according to their population size classes.
  • Four out of five European metropolitan regions with over 10 million inhabitants in 2007 had positive GVA and Employment growth rates over the 2008 to 2012 period. This may be a reflection of their national context rather than their population size.
  • Other large metropolitan regions (from 1 million to 5 million inhabitants) have very varied performances.
  • The other population size classes are scattered across the four quadrants without evident clustering.
  • Overall, population size does not seem to affect economic performance during the crisis.
1
Metropolitan Population is more than 10 million inhabitants
2
Metropolitan Population is between 5 million and 10 million inhabitants
3
Metropolitan Population is between 4 million and 5 million inhabitants
4
Metropolitan Population is between 3 million and 4 million inhabitants
5
Metropolitan Population is between 2 million and 3 million inhabitants
6
Metropolitan Population is between 1 million and 2 million inhabitants
7
Metropolitan Population is between 500,000 and 1 million inhabitants
8
Metropolitan Population is less than 500,000
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To what extent have cities of different absolute GVA been affected by the crisis?

This chart positions metropolitan regions according to the sum of the annual growth rates of Employment and GVA for the 2008 to 2012 period. Metropolitan regions in the upper right hand quadrant have seen high GVA and Employment growth rates over the recession period. Metropolitan regions are coloured according to their absolute GVA size.
  • The five European metropolitan regions with the largest economies in 2008 tend to cluster around the centre of the chart. This could be seen as evidence that their economic weight has allowed them to limit their exposition to the recession or as a reflection of the state of their national economies.
  • Other large economies (from a €100bn to €200bn) are scattered across all four quadrants.
  • There is no evidence of clustering within any particular quadrant of the chart for any other of the 2008 GVA size classes.
  • Absolute GVA size does not seem to confer an economic advantage during the crisis.
1
Metropolitan GVA is more than €200bn
2
Metropolitan GVA is between €150bn and €200bn
3
Metropolitan GVA is between €100bn and €150bn
4
Metropolitan GVA is between €80bn and €100bn
5
Metropolitan GVA is between €50bn and €80bn
6
Metropolitan GVA is between €25bn and €50bn
7
Metropolitan GVA is between €10bn and €25bn
8
Metropolitan GVA is less than €10bn
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To what extent have cities of different GVA per capita been affected by the crisis?

This chart positions metropolitan regions according to the sum of the annual growth rates of Employment and GVA for the 2008 to 2012 period. Metropolitan regions in the upper right hand quadrant have seen high GVA and Employment growth rates over the recession period. Metropolitan regions are coloured according to the extent to which they have GVA per capita figures that are higher or lower than national averages.
  • Most of the metropolitan regions that were poorest relative to their national contexts in 2007 (those with less than 80% of the national GVA per capita) experienced negative GVA and Employment growth rates during the recession.
  • There is no clear evidence of clustering for any of the other categories of metropolitan regions
1
Metropolitan GVA per capita is more than 150% of national GVA per capita
2
Metropolitan GVA per capita is between 125% and 150% of national GVA per capita
3
Metropolitan GVA per capita is between 100% and 125% of national GVA per capita
4
Metropolitan GVA per capita is between 80% and 100% of national GVA per capita
5
Metropolitan GVA per capita is between 66.3% and 80% of national GVA per capita
6
Metropolitan GVA per capita is less than 66.3% of national GVA per capita
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Have capital and non-capital cities been equally effected by the crisis?

This chart positions metropolitan regions according to the sum of the annual growth rates of Employment and GVA for the 2008 to 2012 period. Metropolitan regions in the upper right hand quadrant have seen high GVA and Employment growth rates over the recession period. Metropolitan regions are coloured according to whether or not they are the administrative capital of their respective country.
  • The economic performance of capital cities is very varied, a reflection of the differences in national performance in the crisis.
  • Capital cities follow the general distribution of cities according to GVA and Employment growth during the crisis.
  • Capital city status does not seem to confer any particular economic advantages to metropolitan regions.
0
Non-capital city
1
Capital city
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